WHO DID THE FUNDAMENTAL DISCOVERIES IN X-RAY PHYSICS?
Top fellow Indian scientists and media falsely report India’s track record in science as poor after Sir C.V. Raman’s discovery of Raman Effect. That is why I wish to unfold India’s spectacular achievement in science than any other country. In 2010, two fundamental physics discoveries were reported in X-ray Physics alone. The rest 8 fundamental physics discoveries were reported in 2013 and 2015. Ref: Google search in Internet: M.A.Padmanabha Rao’s World Records in Science.
Fundamental Physics Discoveries in X-ray Physics:
Who did the fundamental discoveries in X-ray Physics?
1. W.C. Roentgen (German), 2. C.G. Barkla (British) and 3. M.A. Padmanabha Rao (Indian).
GERMAN AND BRITISH SCIENTISTS DISCOVERED TWO TYPES OF X-RAYS
W.C. Roentgen has discovered X-rays from discharge tube in 1895. These X-rays known as bremsstrahlung radiation or continuous X-rays are widely used in Hospitals for diagnostic purposes. For example, these continuous X-rays are used to see whether bone fracture took place in accident cases. However, light emission following X-rays from X-ray tubes remained elusive to previous researchers.
In the later years, C.G. Barkla has discovered characteristic X-rays of elements. These X-rays are called XRF (X-ray fluorescence).
The British made Variable Energy X-ray Source (AMC 2084, U.K.) of the size of a lemon used in the current study was manufactured with an intend to provide Rb, Ba and Tb X-rays with different energies from Rb, Ba and Tb XRF sources present as Rb, Ba and Tb salts on incidence of intense gamma beam from 241Am. The source also provides Cu, Ag, and Mo X-rays with different energies from Cu, Ag, and Mo XRF sources present as Cu, Ag, and Mo metals. Light emission remained elusive to previous researchers from any XRF source. This source was used by scientists all over the world but light emission following X-rays eluded from the previous researchers.
The Photomultiplier tube 96635QB from ThornEMI also was widely used as light sensor, yet light emission from X-ray sources has eluded from scientists all over the world for nearly a century.
INDIAN SCIENTIST, M.A.PADMANABHA RAO DISCOVERED TWO SUCCESSIVE RADIATIONS FOLLOWING X-RAYS: BHARAT RADIATION FOLLOWED BY UV DOMINANT OPTICAL EMISSION FROM XRF SOURCES PRESENT AS SALTS.
New to X-ray Physics: M.A.Padmanabha Rao has first reported in Brazilian Journal of Physics in March 2010 that characteristic X-rays (XRF) are followed by Bharat radiation (predicted) which is followed by newly detected UV dominant optical emission. Also explained with unprecedented detail how these two new emissions take place by a previously unknown atomic phenomenon, now known as Padmanabha Rao Effect. In 2013, Bharat radiation wavelengths from 12.87 to 31 nm discovered from solar spectrum measured by solar physicists from University of Colorado was reported. That means beta, gamma and X-ray emissions from radioisotopes and XRF sources also cause Bharat Radiation with wavelengths from 12.87 to 31 nm which in turn emit UV dominant optical emission.
M.A.Padmanabha Rao’s DISCOVERY 2: Discovery of UV dominant optical emission from XRF (X-ray fluorescent) sources present as salts: Of all the sources tested, the maximum UV dominant optical intensity has come from Rb XRF source. The low 0.013336 MeV Rb X-ray energy could cause the maximum UV (99.62%) intensity, while VIS (0.37% ), and NIR (0.01%) radiation intensities remained very low in the gross light intensity. Likewise, Ba X-rays from Ba XRF source, and Tb X-rays from Tb XRF source present as Ba, and Tb salts respectively also showed the UV dominant optical emission. Since both X-ray tube and XRF source emit basically X-rays, optical emission is expected even from X-ray tubes used in Hospitals for diagnostic purposes. As both X-ray and optical spectra can now be detected simultaneously, the data available opens up wide range of application in future.
M.A.Padmanabha Rao’s Discovery 3: UV DOMINANT OPTICAL EMISSION FROM METALS AT ROOM TEMPERATURE WHEN PRESENT AS RADIOISOTOPES OR XRF SOURCES
UV emission from metal sources remained elusive to previous researchers until 2010. Therefore, unprecedented detection of UV dominant optical emission from metals at room temperature could be a revolutionary experimental finding in the history of science. Optical emission was detected from cobalt metal when present as 57Co (AMC, U.K.); 60Co useful in cancer treatment; and also from Cu, Mo, and Ag metals present as Cu, Mo, and Ag XRF sources of AMC 2084,U.K. The optical radiation originating from metal sources hold vital key that it should be atomic emission of light from excited atoms in radioisotopes and XRF sources. Metal 57Co spectrum detected notably at room temperature pinpointed that the dominant γ-rays might be causing atomic emission spectrum from within the same excited 57Co atom by a previously unknown phenomenon that led to subatomic research.