D.M. DONGARE*, G.R. PAWAR1, S.B. MURUMKAR1 AND D.A. CHAVAN

International Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Volume 12 | Issue 2 | June, 2016 | 151-157  e ISSN–0976–5670
RESEARCH PAPER
INTRODUCTION
Pulses are important not only for their value as
human food, but also because of high protein content for
livestock. It has been important component of Indian
agriculture enabling the land to restore fertility by fixing
atmospheric nitrogen, so as to produce reasonable yields
of succeeding crops and to meet out the demand of
dietary requirement regarding proteins, carbohydrates
and other nutrient sources. On an average, pulses contain
22-24 per cent protein as against 8-10 per cent in cereals.
A good amount of lysine is present in the pulses. Pulses
vary in maturity periods, hence, are useful in different
cropping systems. Greengram locally called as moog or
mug [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] belongs to the family
Leguminoceae, which fixes atmospheric nitrogen and
improves soil fertility by adding 20-25 kg N ha-1. Being a
short duration crop and having wider adaptability, it can
be grown in summer as well as in Kharif season. It is an
important ruling crop in summer season, locally known
Abstract : The field experiment was conducted in Factorial Randomized Block Design during summer 2010 at Research Farm,
College of Agriculture, Latur (Maharashtra). The treatments were comprised of nine combinations with three fertilizer levels viz.,
50 per cent RDF (F1), 75 per cent RDF (F2), 100 per cent RDF (F3), along with seed inoculation of Rhizobium (B1), seed inoculation
of PSB (B2) and dual seed inoculation of Rhizobium + PSB (B3). Each experimental unit was replicated thrice with the plot size of
5.4 m × 4.2 m and 4.2 m × 3.6 m as the gross and net plot, respectively. The variety GOLD-9 SHANESHWAR was sown by dibbling
method on 28th January 2010 at spacing of 30 cm × 10 cm. The recommended cultural practices and plant protection measures were
undertaken. The recommended dose of fertilizer (25:50:00 kg NPK ha-1) was applied at the time of sowing through ammonium
sulphate and SSP. The results revealed that application of 100 per cent RDF (F3) and dual seed inoculation of Rhizobium + PSB
(B3) recorded significantly higher growth, yield and quality contributing characters followed by application of 75 per cent RDF
(F2), 50 per cent RDF (F1) in combination with seed inoculation of PSB (B2) and seed inoculation of Rhizobium (B1). But dual seed
inoculation of Rhizobium + PSB (B3) recorded significantly higher growth contributing characters followed by seed inoculation
of Rhizobium (B1) and seed inoculation of PSB (B2) except number of pods per plant.
Key Words : Biofertilizer, Fertilizer levels, Growth, Summer greengram, Yield
View Point Article : Dongare, D.M., Pawar, G.R., Murumkar, S.B. and Chavan, D.A. (2016). To study the effect of different fertilizer and
biofertizer levels on growth and yield of summer greengram. Internat. J. agric. Sci., 12 (2) : 151-157,DOI:10.15740/HAS/IJAS/12.2/151-157.
Article History : Received : 29.12.2015; Revised : 02.02.2016; Accepted : 05.04.2016
To study the effect of different fertilizer and biofertizer
levels on growth and yield of summer greengram
D.M. DONGARE*, G.R. PAWAR1, S.B. MURUMKAR1 AND D.A. CHAVAN
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, (V.N.M.A.U.), LATUR (M.S.) INDIA
DOI:10.15740/HAS/IJAS/12.2/151-157
Visit us : www.researchjournal.co.in
* Author for correspondence:
1Lokmangal College of Agriculture, (M.P.K.V.), Wadala, SOLAPUR (M.S.) INDIA
Hind Agricultural Research Internat. J. agric. Sci. | June, 2016 | Vol. 12 | Issue 2 | 152 and Training Institute
as ‘Vaishakhi Mug’. The yield of summer greengram is
comparatively more than that of Kharif crop, mainly
because the controlled moisture conditions through
irrigation, abundant sunshine and less pest and disease
infestation. The greengram foliage left over after picking
of mature pods can either be fed to livestock or it may
ploughed in situ as a green manure to enrich soil with
organic matter. Employment is provided to the farmers
and the agricultural labours during off season. Mungbean
is a very short duration crop so it can be grown as catch
crop.
In India mungbean occupies 3.0 million hectares
and contribute to 1.3 million tonnes in pulse production
(Anonymous, 2010a). In Maharashtra, area under
mungbean is 4.13 lakh hectares and its production and
productivity is 1.23 lakh tonnes and 297 kg ha-1
(Anonymous, 2010b). Greengram [Vigna radiata (L.)
Wilczek] gives low seed yield and poor growth
performance mainly due to poor management and low
soil fertility. Nitrogen due to leaching and volatization
and phosphorus due to fixation may not be available
adequately at flowering and pod formation stages of crop
and result in shading of flowers and pods. The crop needs
more nitrogen at the reproductive phase, and the nutrient
uptake after flowering either becomes slow or stops due
to inactivation of roots. The optimum supply of nitrogen
and phosphorus significantly influenced on growth and
yield of greengram. Yield of summer greengram increases
with the application of nitrogenous and phosphatic
fertilization. Usually grain legumes are grown on marginal
land and poor yield in such soils are partly due to lack of
effective and specific strains of Rhizobium in
rhizosphere. The uptake of phosphorus by plant is also
influenced by use of PSB. Hence, to evaluate correct
levels of fertilizer and biofertizer on growth and yield of
summer greengram the present investigation was
undertaken.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
A field experiment was conducted during summer
2010 at College of Agriculture, Latur (Maharashtra). The
Latur falls under the subtropical climate of NARP and is
situated on an elevation of 633.85 meters above the mean
sea level on 18o 5’ to 18o 24’ North latitude and 77o 36’
East longitude The soil of experimental plot was medium
black clay (Vertisol) with good drainage. The experiment
was laid out in Factorial Randomized BlockDesign with
three replications. There were nine treatment
combinations with three inorganic fertilizer levels (F1-
50% RDF, F2- 75% RDF, F3-100%RDF) and three
biofertilizer levels (B1-Rhizobium, B2-PSB, B3-
Rhizobium+PSB). Each experimental unit was replicated
thrice with the plot size of 5.4 m × 4.2 mand 4.2 m × 3.6
m as the gross and net plot, respectively. The variety
GOLD-9 SHANESHWAR was sown 28th January 2010
by dibbling at a distance of 30 cm × 10 cm at about 2.5
cm depth. Application of N and P as per RDF 25:50:00
NPK kg ha-1. The complete dose of nitrogen and
phosphorus as per treatment was drilled at sowing
uniformly in the plots. The fertilizers used were
ammonium sulphate (20.6% N) and single super
phosphate (16% P). The seeds were treated with thirum
80 WP @ 3 g kg -1 of seeds for controlling seed borne
diseases. Also the seeds were inoculated with culture of
Rhizobium and phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (PSB)
before sowing. The biometric observations for growth/
yield attributing characters were taken at 60 and at
harvest stage of crop by randomly selecting five plants
per plot. The nitrogen content in seed analysed by microkjeldhal
method (AOAC, 1975) was utilized to work out
protein content using factor 5.71 (Sadasivam and
Manickam, 1976). Data obtained on various variables
were analyzed by analysis of variance method (Panse
and Sukhatme, 1967).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The results obtained from the present investigation
as well as relevant discussion have been summarized
under following heads :
Effect of inorganic fertilizer levels on growth, yield
and quality parameters of greengram :
The beneficial effect of different levels of fertilizers
on plant height, number of functional leaves, leaf area,
number of branches, number of pods per plant and total
dry matter of greengram were evident during active
growth and maturity (Table 1).
The effect of different levels of fertilizers on plant
height was found to be significant and the higher plant
height was observed by the application of 100 per cent
RDF (32.42 cm) as compared to other levels of fertilizers.
Similar result was obtained by Uddin et al. (2009). Mean
number of branches were influenced significantly by
various treatments under study. The application of 100
per cent RDF was found to be at par with 75 per cent
RDF and found to be significantly superior over 50 per
D.M. DONGARE, G.R. PAWAR, S.B. MURUMKAR AND D.A. CHAVAN
151-157
Hind Agricultural Research Internat. J. agric. Sci. | June, 2016 | Vol. 12 | Issue 2 | 153 and Training Institute
cent RDF. Differences were at par between the
treatments of 75 and 50 per cent RDF at all the growth
stages. The application of 100 per cent RDF recorded
higher mean number of functional leaves (19.88) and
leaf area per plant (487.83 cm2) followed by the
application of 75 per cent RDF (18.68, 453.32 cm2) and
50 per cent RDF (17.51, 424.91 cm2), respectively.
Similar result was obtained by Singh et al. (2005). The
application of 100 per cent RDF recorded the higher dry
matter accumulation (19.89 g) followed by the application
of 75 per cent RDF (18.59 g) and 50 per cent RDF
(17.42 g) at harvest stage. Similar result was reported
by Yakadri et al. (2004), Saxena et al. (1996) and Badole
and Umale (1994). The application of 100 per cent RDF
recorded higher mean number of pods per plant (16.69)
followed by the application of 75 per cent RDF (15.57)
and 50 per cent RDF (14.59). Same result was reported
by Sadeghipour et al. (2010); Uddin et al. (2009); Dixit
et al. (2008); Suman et al. (2007); Karwasra et al.
(2006); Khan et al. (2002) and Patel and Patel (1994).
Data on yield and yield contributing characters viz.,
weight of pods plant-1(g), weight of grain plant-1(g), test
weight (g), grain yield (kg ha-1), straw yield (kg ha-1),
harvest index (%) and protein content (%) as influenced
by different levels of fertilizers was found to be
significant are presented in Table 2. Application of 100
per cent RDF (8.61 g plant-1) was found to be at par
with 75 per cent RDF (7.88 g plant-1) and found to be
significantly superior over 50 per cent RDF (7.44 g
plant-1) in influencing pod yield g plant-1. Application of
100 per cent RDF (4.62 g plant-1) was found to be at par
with 75 per cent RDF (4.21 g plant-1) and found to be
significantly superior over 50 per cent RDF (4.04 g plant-
1) in influencing grain yield g plant-1. Application of 100
per cent RDF (33.63 g) was found to be at par with 75
per cent RDF (31.01 g) and found to be significantly
superior over 50 per cent RDF (29.47 g) in influencing
test weight (g). The application of 100 per cent RDF
recorded significantly higher mean grain yield kg ha-1
(1056 kg ha-1) followed by the application of 75 per cent
RDF (974 kg ha-1) and 50 per cent RDF (926 kg ha-1).
Same result was reported by Sadeghipour et al. (2010);
Singh (2008); Chesti and Tahir (2007); Siag and Prakash
(2007); Sekhon et al. (2006); Mitra et al. (2006); Mandal
et al. (2005); Ganeshamurthy et al. (2005) and Yakadri
et al. (2004). Straw yield kg ha-1 as influenced by
different levels of fertilizers was found to be significant.
The application of 100 per cent RDF recorded
significantly higher mean straw yield kg ha-1 (2323 kg
ha-1) followed by the application of 75 per cent RDF
Table 1 : Growth and development parameter as influenced by different fertilizer levels and biofertilizer treatments
Treatments
Plant height at
harvest (cm)
Number of
functional leaves
plant-1 at 50 DAS
Leaf area
plant-1 at 50 DAS
(cm2)
Number of
branches plant-1 at
harvest
Number of pods
plant-1 at harvest
Total dry matter
plant-1 at harvest
(g)
Fertilizer levels (F)
F1 : 50%RDF 28.22 17.51 424.91 4.65 14.59 17.42
F2 : 75%RDF 30.12 18.68 453.32 4.96 15.57 18.59
F3 : 100%RDF 32.42 19.88 487.83 5.31 16.69 19.89
S.E. ± 1.06 0.62 16.07 0.17 0.54 0.63
C.D. (P=0.05) 3.19 1.85 48.17 0.50 1.61 1.90
Biofertilizers (B)
B1 : Rhizobium 30.57 18.96 460.10 5.03 14.41 18.86
B2 : PSB 27.99 17.36 421.25 4.62 15.79 17.28
B3 : Rhizobium+PSB 32.21 19.75 484.71 5.27 16.64 19.76
S.E. ± 1.06 0.62 16.07 0.17 0.54 0.63
C.D. (P=0.05) 3.19 1.85 48.17 0.50 1.61 1.90
Interaction (F × B)
S.E. ± 1.84 1.07 27.83 0.29 0.93 1.10
C.D. (P=0.05) NS NS NS NS NS NS
General mean 30.26 18.69 455.36 4.98 15.62 18.63
NS=Non-significant
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FERTILIZER & BIOFERTIZER LEVELS ON GROWTH & YIELD OF SUMMER GREENGRAM
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(2132 kg ha-1) and 50 per cent RDF (2026 kg ha-1). Same
result was reported by Karwasra et al. (2006); Yakadri
et al. (2004); Khan et al. (2002); Srinivas and Shaik
(2002) and Singh et al. (2000). Data on harvest index
showed that there was no any significant effect by the
application of different levels of fertilizers on harvest
index. The highest harvest index was observed (31.37)
by the application of 50 per cent RDF but differences
between the harvest index were nearly same at all the
treatments. Same result was reported by Singh et al.
(2000) and Saxena et al. (1996). The effect of different
levels of fertilizers on mean protein content was found
to be significant. The application of 100 per cent RDF
recorded significantly higher mean protein content
(23.10%) followed by the application of 75 per cent RDF
(21.10%) and 50 per cent RDF (20.05%). Similar result
was reported by Singh (2008); Mitra et al. (2006) and
Ahmad et al. (2003).
Effect of biofertilizer levels on growth, yield and
quality parameters of greengram :
The beneficial effect of biofertilizer treatments on
plant height, number of functional leaves, leaf area,
number of branches, number of pods per plant and total
dry matter of greengram were evident during active
growth and maturity (Table 1).
The application of biofertilizers on mean plant height
was found to be significant at harvest stage of crop.
The application of dual seed inoculation of Rhizobium +
PSB observed significantly the highest mean plant height
(32.21 cm) followed by the alone seed inoculation of
Rhizobium (30.57 cm) and alone seed inoculation of PSB
(27.99 cm). Similar result was reported by Uddin et al.
(2009) and Dost Muhammad et al. (2004). The data on
mean number of branches per plant, functional leaves
per plant, leaf area per plant (cm2) and total dry matter
per plant (g) revealed that the dual seed inoculation of
Rhizobium + PSB recorded significantly higher mean
number of branches per plant (5.27), functional leaves
per plant (19.75), leaf area per plant (484.71 cm2) and
total dry matter per plant (19.76 g) as compared to the
alone seed inoculation of Rhizobium and PSB at 50 and
at harvest stage of crop growth. Similar result was
reported by Uddin et al. (2009); Ghosh and Joseph (2007)
and Goud and Reddy (2007b). The data on mean number
of pods per plant revealed that the dual seed inoculation
of Rhizobium + PSB recorded highest mean number of
pods per plant (16.64) followed by the alone seed
inoculation of PSB (15.79) and alone seed inoculation of
Rhizobium (14.41). Similar result was reported by Uddin
et al. (2009); Goud and Reddy (2007a and b); Srivastava
et al. (2006) and Dost Muhammad et al. (2004).
Table 2 : Yield and quality parameter as influenced by different fertilizer levels and biofertilizer treatments
Treatments
Weight of pods
plant-1 (g)
Weight of grains
plant-1 (g)
Test weight
(g)
Grain yield
(kg ha-1)
Straw yield
(kg ha-1)
Harvest index
(%)
Protein
content (%)
Fertilizer levels (F)
F1 : 50%RDF 7.44 4.04 29.47 926 2026 31.37 20.05
F2 : 75%RDF 7.88 4.21 31.01 974 2132 31.36 21.10
F3 : 100%RDF 8.61 4.62 33.63 1056 2323 31.25 23.10
S.E. ± 0.30 0.16 1.18 34 48 - 0.68
C.D. (P=0.05) 0.90 0.47 NS 103 143 - 2.02
Biofertilizers (B)
B1 : Rhizobium 7.38 3.98 29.23 919 2010 31.38 19.89
B2 : PSB 7.99 4.22 31.45 989 2163 31.39 21.40
B3 : Rhizobium+PSB 8.57 4.68 33.43 1050 2308 31.28 22.95
S.E. ± 0.30 0.16 1.18 34 48 - 0.68
C.D. (P=0.05) 0.90 0.47 NS 103 143 - 2.02
Interaction (F × B)
S.E. ± 0.52 0.27 2.04 59 82 - 1.17
C.D. (P=0.05) NS NS NS NS NS - NS
General mean 7.98 4.29 31.37 986 2160 31.34 21.42
NS=Non-significant
D.M. DONGARE, G.R. PAWAR, S.B. MURUMKAR AND D.A. CHAVAN
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Data on yield and yield contributing characters viz.,
weight of pods plant-1(g), weight of grain plant-1(g), test
weight (g), grain yield (kg ha-1), straw yield (kg ha-1),
harvest index (%) and protein content (%) as influenced
by biofertilizer treatments were found to be significant
(Table 2). The mean pod yield (g) per plant was
significantly influenced by the various treatments and
it was revealed that the dual seed inoculation of
Rhizobium + PSB recorded highest mean pod yield
(g) per plant (8.57 g) followed by the alone seed
inoculation of PSB (7.99 g) and alone seed inoculation
of Rhizobium (7.38 g). The effect of biofertilizers on
mean grain yield (g plant-1) was found to be significant.
The dual seed inoculation of Rhizobium + PSB recorded
highest mean grain yield (4.68 g) followed by the alone
seed inoculation of PSB (4.22 g) and alone seed
inoculation of Rhizobium (3.98 g). The effect of
biofertilizers on mean number of grain per plant was
found to be significant. The effect of biofertilizers on
mean test weight (1000 seeds) was found to be nonsignificant.
But the highest test weight was observed
by the dual seed inoculation of Rhizobium + PSB (33.43
g) followed by the alone seed inoculation of PSB (31.45)
and alone seed inoculation of Rhizobium (29.23).
Similar result was reported by Uddin et al. (2009) and
Ghosh and Joseph (2007). The data on mean grain yield
kg ha-1 and straw yield kg ha-1 revealed that the dual
seed inoculation of Rhizobium + PSB recorded
significantly higher mean grain yield (1050 kg ha-1 ) and
straw yield (2308 kg ha-1) followed by the alone seed
inoculation of PSB (989 and 2163 kg ha-1, respectively)
and alone seed inoculation of Rhizobium (919 and 2010
kg ha-1, respectively). Similar result was reported by
Singh et al. (2009); Ghosh and Joseph (2007) and
Srivastava et al. (2006). Data on harvest index showed
that there was no any significant effect by the
application of different levels of fertilizers on harvest
index. The highest harvest index was observed (31.39)
by the alone seed inoculation of PSB but differences
between the harvest index was nearly more and less
same at all the treatments. Similar result was reported
by Bhat et al. (2005). The data on mean protein content
(%) revealed that the dual seed inoculation of
Rhizobium + PSB recorded significantly higher mean
protein content (22.95 %) followed by the alone seed
inoculation of PSB (21.40 %) and alone seed inoculation
of Rhizobium (19.89 %). Similar result was reported
by Goud and Reddy (2007a).
Interaction effect on growth, yield and quality
parameters of greengram :
The data on mean plant height, branches per plant,
functional leaves per plant, leaf area per plant and total
dry matter per plant revealed that the interaction effect
of different levels of fertilizers and biofertilizers on all
above growth attributing parameters was found to be
non-significant (Table 1). Similar result was reported by
Uddin et al. (2009). The data (Table 2) on mean pod
yield per plant (g), grain yield per plant (g) and test weight
(g) (1000 seeds) revealed that the interaction effect of
different levels of fertilizers and biofertilizers on above
yield attributing parameters was found to be nonsignificant.
Similar result was reported by Uddin et al.
(2009). The data (Table 2) on mean grain yield kg ha-1
and straw yield kg ha-1 revealed that the interaction effect
of different levels of fertilizers and biofertilizers on above
yield and yield attributes was found to be non-significant.
Similar result was reported by Uddin et al. (2009). The
data (Table 2) on mean protein content revealed that the
interaction effect of different levels of fertilizers and
biofertilizers on mean protein content was found to be
non-significant.
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EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FERTILIZER & BIOFERTIZER LEVELS ON GROWTH & YIELD OF SUMMER GREENGRAM
12t h
of Excellence
Year
         
151-157

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